Georges Méliès, a pioneer of moving horror pictures

The House of the Devil and other tricksters

To determine the origin of the horror film, it may be useful to first have a look at what a horror film is. Wikipedia gives us this description, “Horror films are movies that strive to elicit the emotions of fear, horror and terror from viewers. Their plots frequently involve themes of death, the supernatural or mental illness . Many horror movies also include a central villain”.

This is of course quite a broad discription and one could, if one were so inclined, discuss the differences between suspension dramas, psychological thrillers, fantasy films, science fiction films and horror films. Can the classic Dracula still be considered a horror film, although it really doesn’t frighten anyone these days? How do we know what was and what wasn’t frightening in the 1890’s?

Well, all this is of course up to judgement, speculation and opinion. Some of the films I include here, such as a few Lon Chaney-flicks or melodramatic costume shows, might not be considered horror movies in certain circles, whereas someone else might have included Méliès’ A Voyage to the Moon or the sci-fi classic Metropolis. I have made my choices after studying numerous lists of horror movies and then using my own judgement and taste. Comments are welcome!
Nonetheless, there is one thing that most observers do agree on. That is that the first ever horror movie is the short film Le Manoir du Diable (The House of the Devil) by frenchman Georges Méliès. Still, others mean that the film cannot be considered a horror film, since it was intended to amuse rather than frighten. Others again would say that the first horror film was Une nuit terrible, by the same director/actor/magician.

Below:  Méliès’ Le Manoir du Diable

Regradless of whether Méliès’ films should be considered pure horror films or horror comedy or just plain trick films, no one can deny the impact that his production had on early cinema in general and horror movies in particular.

Méliès was a stage magician who got intrigued with the possibilities of film after he saw a demonstration of the Lumiere Brothers’ camera. Between 1896 and 1914 he produced over 500 films, ranging in length from just one to forty minutes. In 1913 his company went bankrupt. Most of his films were lost forever when the French army melted them for boot heels during WWI. But some of them have survived, including The House of the Devil, A Night of Terror and his epic and hilarious A Voyage to the Moon (famed for the scene where a spacecraft crashes into the eye of the Man in the Moon).

Méliès pictures were usually devoid of any deeper plot, and mostly depicted short scetches in which things seemed to disappear and reappear, change size, multiply or transform. This he did by clever stop trick technique, multiple exposures and dissolves. In his films though, the tricks were always contributed to a devil, Mephistopheles, spirits or witches. In his 1896 film Le Manoir du Diable, Satan conjures up demons and witches from a cauldron before being banished by a cavalier. Compared to many of his later masterpieces, the film is quite crude and clumsy, but nevertheless has been hailed as the first horror movie.

For mor movies by Méliès, see the first 6 films in the Playlist of the corresponding YouTube link: